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Biology Project to Study Bio-Insecticides And Pesticides

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To study the importance, usage and preparation of bio-insecticides and pesticides


Introduction

Today the rapid increase in population and demand of food materials has initiated the large use of insecticides and pesticides. These toxic chemical insecticides and pesticides are resulting in harmful effects and biomagnifications due to which our environment is continuously polluting and fertile lands are acquiring infertility. No doubt they are providing hopeful results in eradication of insects, pests and diseases but they are also killing useful organism present in soil due to which the fertility of the soil is rapidly declining. The conventional farming practices which uses chemical methods to kill both useful and harmful life forms indiscriminately, resulting in the malfunctioning of food chain and food web. Bio-control is the best method to cope with the losses done by the chemicals. In these method insects, pests and pathogens are removed using biological methods without harming the environment and other organism. This is based on natural predation rather than introduced chemicals. The use of bio-insecticides and pesticides also comes under this category. Today due to awareness about the harmful effects of the chemical insecticides and pesticides, most of the farmers are diverting towards the organic farming. In our local area many such plants, waste matter etc. are available from which these bio-insecticides and pesticides can be prepared by using natural means only. Conventional pesticides are generally synthetic materials that directly kill or inactivate the pest. Being single chemical entity, chemical pesticides have resulted in increased resistance in pests. Bio pesticides also known as Biological Pesticides are pesticides derived from natural materials as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. Bio pesticides are less toxic and also reduce the pollution problems caused by conventional pesticides. The use of bio-insecticides and bio-pesticides also fall under this category only. Organic agriculture is a unique production

management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity, and this is accomplished by using on-farm agronomic, biological and mechanical methods in exclusion of all synthetic off-farm inputs. Organic farming generally produces somewhat lower yields but sustains better yields during drought years, allowing it to reap higher yields in some cases. Studies thus far have shown that organic farming requires less water, uses few and always natural pesticides, prevents soil erosion, leaches dramatically fewer nitrates, and has been shown to have improved nutrient qualities including as much as double the flavonoids, an important antioxidant. This project is mainly based on the preparation, usage, effects and advantages of bio-insecticides and bio-pesticides.

Different types of bio-insecticides and bio-pesticide

  1. i.            Cow Urine
  2. ii.            Fermented curd water
  3. iii.            Dashparni Extract
  4. iv.            Neem -cow urine extract
  5. v.            Mixed leaves extract
  6. vi.            Chili –garlic extract
  7. vii.            Broad spectrum formulation 1
  8. viii.            Broad spectrum formulation 2

Cow Urine Extract

In India, as farming goes hand in hand with cattle rearing, therefore the cow urine is available easily in the rural areas. It has acquired an important place in the hindu religion since ancient times. Any religious ceremony and rituals can’t be performed without cow urine which is commonly known as gomutra. We will here use the cow urine for the control of pests and as a growth promoter for the growing crops.

Preparation and application: -

Collect 5 liter of pure and concentrated cow urine and dilute it with 40 liters of water and spray it using the sprayer in one hectare of field at the evening time.

Effects and advantages:-

  1. Due to high content of urea in it which is toxic to most of the organisms, the pests and insects etc. will not attack the leaves and buds of the crop plants.
  2. Due to pungent and bad smell of the extract most of the pests and insects which are attracted due to nectar and fragrance get repelled, preventing the plant.

Fermented Curd Water

In many states of rural India milk production is the main occupation associated with the farming also known as dairy management. The dairy products can also prove a major alternative in controlling the insects and pests in farmlands. One of the dairy product known as butter milk or Chaach can be used for this purpose. It is made by the centrifugation of curd in which byproduct ghee (fats) is also obtained. There is much greater demand of butter milk in the summer season and it gets distasteful if it is kept for more than two days. This distasteful butter milk can be used to make the extract.

Preparation and application: -

Take the distasteful butter milk and add equal amount of water in it. Keep it for two days in a semi-shaded place. Now take it and add 40 liter of water in 10 liter of the extract to form 50 liter of the solution. Spray this solution in 1 hectare of field in such a way that all plants get bath in the fogging spray in the early morning time.

Effects and advantages:-

  1. The fermented butter milk contains billions of bacteria that suppress the growth of other bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The inhibitors released by these bacteria works against the unwanted pathogens.
  2. Moreover, fermented butter milk also contains the useful nutrients for the growth and maturation of the crop plant.

Dashparni extract

Materials required: –

Neem leaves 5 kg, vitex negundo leaves 2 kg, Aristolochia leaves 2 kg, papaya (carica papaya) 2 kg, Tinospora cordifolia leaves 2 kg, Annona squamosa (Custard apple) leaves 2 kg, Pongamia pinnata (Karanja) leaves 2 kg, Ricinus communis (Castor) leaves 2 kg, Nerium indicum 2 kg, Calotropis procera leaves 2 kg, Green chili paste 2 kg, Garlic paste 250 gm, Cow dung 3 kg and Cow Urine 5 lit.

Method of Preparation:-

Crush all of the above material and mix it in 200 liters of water to ferment for one month. Shake this mixture regularly three times a day. Filter it after one month. This extract can be stored up to 6 months.

Application:-

Take this extract in fogging machine and apply it on the plants. The above prepared extract is sufficient for one acre crop.

Effects and advantages:-

  1. The extract prepared is very useful for the control of wide variety of pests such as Thrips, Leaf folder, Leafhopper etc.
  2. It contains neem which has ovi-position deterrent effect, cow dung & cow urine which has bio-fertilizer role also helps in enhancing useful microbial activity in soil.
  3. It can be prepared easily and can be stored for a large time interval for further use.

Neem-cow urine extract

Materials required:-

5 kg of neem leaves, 5 liter of cow urine, 2 kg of cow dung, 100 liter of water

Method of preparation:-

Crush the above substances and ferment for 24 hours with intermittent stirring, filter and squeeze the extract and dilute to 100 liters of water.

Application:-

Use this extract to fill in the spray machine and spray it over one acre of the crop.

Effects and Advantages:-

  1. Neem is a broad spectrum pesticide and even compatible with most chemical pesticides. Neem works by intervening at several stages of the life of an insect. It may not kill the pests instantaneously but incapacitate it in several other ways.
  2. Neem acts in various ways like as anti-feedant, as repellent, as growth inhibitor and also has ovi-position deterrent effect.
  3. Cow urine has high content of urea in it which is toxic to most of the organisms, the pests and insects etc.

Mixed leaves extract

Materials required:-

3 kg of neem leaves, 10 liters of cow-urine, custard apple leaves 2 kg, 2 kg papaya leaves, 2 kg pomegranate leaves, 2 kg guava leaves.

Method of Preparation:-

Crush all of the above recommended material and add 5 liters of water in it. Boil the above mixture 5 times after some intervals of time till the mixture becomes half of the initial. Keep it for 24 hours, filter and squeeze the extract. This can be stored in bottles for 6 months.

Application:-

Dilute the above prepared extract 2-2.5 liters in 50 liters of water.  Fill the diluted solution in fogging machine and spray it in one acre area.

Effects and Advantages:-

  1. Guava leaves has achieved a special place in ayurveda due to its medical use for curation of some diseases.
  2. Pomegranate leaves have resistive nature against many insects and pests due to presence of some special compounds in it.

Chili-garlic extract

Materials required:-

Ipomea leaves 1 kg, 500 gm hot chili, 500 gm garlic, 5 kg neem leaves, 10 liter cow urine

Method of Preparation:-

Crush the above recommended material and boil the suspension till it becomes half of the initial. Filter and squeeze the above extract and store it in glass or plastic bottles.

Application:-

Take 2-3 liters of the extract and dilute it with 50 liters of water. Now mix it thoroughly and use it as a foliar spray for one acre of crop.

Effects and advantages:-

  1. Garlic contains sulphur which is an antibacterial.
  2. Chili has the property to avoid fungal and bacterial infection due to its preservative property.

Broad spectrum formulation 1

Materials required:-

3 kg fresh crushed neem leaves, 1 kg neem seed kernel powder, 10 lit of cow urine, 500 gm green chilies and 250gm of garlic

Method of preparation:-

Take a copper container and mix 3 kg neem leaves, neem seed kernel powder with 10 liters of cow urine. Seal the container and allow the suspension to be ferment for 10 days. After 10 days boil the suspension, till the volume becomes half of the initial. Now ground 500 gm of green chilies in 1 liter of water and keep overnight. In another container crush 250 gm of garlic, add 1 liter of water and keep it overnight. Next day mix the above boiled extract, chili extract and garlic extract. Mix it vigorously and filter it. Store the concentrate in glass or plastic containers.

Application:-

Dilute 250 ml of concentrate with 10 liters of water and mix it thoroughly. Now use it as a foliar spray on the crop.

Effects and advantages:-

  1. Due to the formation of complex compounds of Cu in this formulation which are poisonous for many bacteria, fungi, protozoa etc., it is very useful for microbial control.
  2. The compounds produced by the fermentation of the above extract are poisonous to many micro-organisms and insects.

Broad spectrum formulation 2

Materials required:-

5 kg neem seed kernel powder, 1kg Karanj seed powder, 5 kg chopped leaves of besharam (Ipomeas sp.), 5kg chopped neem leaves, 10-12 lit of cow urine

Method of preparation:-

Suspend 5 kg neem seed kernel powder, 1kg Karanj seed powder, 5 kg chopped leaves of besharam (Ipomeas sp.) and 5kg chopped neem leaves in a 20 liter drum. Add 10-12 lit of cow urine and fill the drum with water to make 150 lit. Seal the drum and allow it to ferment for 8-10 days. After 8 days mix the contents and distil in a distiller.

Application:-

Distillate obtained from 150 litre liquid will be sufficient for one acre. Dilute in appropriate proportion and use as foliar spray.

Effects and advantages:-

  1. Neem effectively controls common pests like Thrips, Whitefly, Leaf folder, Bollworms, Aphids, Jassids, Pod borer, Fruit borer, Stem borer, Leafhopper, Caterpillars, Diamond back moth. 
  2. Karanj contains poisonous chemicals in it and can be used to check microbial growth.

Bibliography

Books

ü  Handbook of ICAR-2007

ü New era of Biology – Deepak Sachdev

Websites

http:// www.exoticnatural.com

http:// www.savijane.com

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