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Chemistry Project on Determination of Contents of Cold Drinks

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Determination of Contents of Cold Drinks

*Chemistry Project*

-Determination Of The Contents Of-

-Cold Drinks-

Project Prepared by –

Kanishk Singh

XII – A

Session: 2009 – 2010

Apeejay School, NOIDA

Board Roll No.  – 5709594

*Certificate*

This  is  hereby  to   certify   that   the   original   and genuine investigation work has been carried out to investigate   about   the   subject   matter   and   the related data collection and  investigation  has  been completed  solely,  sincerely  and   satisfactorily   by KANISHK  SINGH   of   CLASS  XII – A,   Apeejay School,   NOIDA,    regarding    his    project    titled “DETERMINARION   OF   THE   CONTENTS   OF COLD DRINKS”.

Teacher’s Signature

*Acknowledgement*

It would be  my  utmost  pleasure  to  express  my sincere thanks  to  my  chemistry  teacher  Dr. S.K. Jain in  providing  a  helping  hand  in  this  project.

His valuable guidance, support and supervision all through this project are responsible  for  attaining its  present  form. I  would  also  like  to  thank  my parents as they encouraged me to put forward my project.

*Contents*

  1. Introduction
  2. Theory
  3. Aim
  4. Apparatus
  5. Chemicals Required
  6. Detection of pH
  7. Test for Carbon Dioxide

VIII. Test for Glucose

  1. Test for Phosphate
  2. Test for Alcohol
  3. Test for Sucrose
  4. Result

XIII. Precautions

XIV.  Conclusion

  1. Bibliography

*Introduction*

The  era  of  cold  drinks  began  in  1952  but  the

industrialization in India marked its beginning with

launching of Limca and Goldspot  by  parley  group of companies. Since, the beginning  of  cold  drinks was    highly    profitable    and    luring,    many multinational companies launched their brands  in India like Pepsi and Coke.

Now days, it is observed in general that majority of

people  viewed  Sprite,  Fanta  and  Limca  to  give

feeling of lightness, while Pepsi and Thumps Up to

activate pulse and brain.

*Theory*

Cold   drinks  of  different   brands   are   composed   of   alcohol,

carbohydrates, carbon dioxide,  phosphate  ions etc. These  soft

drinks give feeling of warmth, lightness and have  a  tangy  taste

which is liked by everyone. Carbon dioxide is responsible for the

formation of froth on shaking the bottle.

The carbon dioxide gas  is  dissolved  in  water  to  form  carbonic acid which is also responsible for the tangy taste. Carbohydrates are the naturally  occurring  organic  compounds  and  are  major source of energy to our body. General formula of carbohydrates is CX (H2O)Y.

On the basis of their molecule size carbohydrates are classified as:-

Monosaccharide, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides. Glucose is a monosaccharide with formula C6H12O6 .It occurs in Free State in

the ripen grapes in bones and also in many sweet fruits. It is also present  in  human  blood  to the extent of about 0.1%. Sucrose is one of the most useful disaccharides in our daily life. It  is  widely distributed in nature in juices, seeds and also in flowers of  many plants. The  main  source  of  sucrose  is  sugar  cane  juice  which contain 15-20 % sucrose and sugar  beet  which  has  about  10-17 % sucrose.   The   molecular   formula   of   sucrose  is  C12H22O11.  It  is produced by a mixture of glucose and fructose. It is non-reducing in nature whereas glucose is reducing. Cold drinks are a bit acidic in nature and their acidity can be  measured  by  finding  their  pH value. The pH values also depend upon the  acidic  contents  such  as citric acid and phosphoric acid.

*Aim*

Comparitive Study and Qualitative Analysis

of different brands of Cold Drinks

available in market.

*Apparatus*

  • Test Tubes
  • Test Tube Holder
  • Test Tube Stand
  • Stop Watch
  • Beaker
  • Bunsen Burner
  • pH Paper
  • Tripod Stand
  • China Dish
  • Wire Gauge
  • Water Bath

*Chemicals Required*

  • Iodine Solution
  • Potassium Iodide
  • Sodium Hydroxide
  • Lime Water
  • Fehling’s A & B Solution
  • Concentrated Nitric Acid
  • Benedict Solution
  • Ammonium Molybdate

*Detection Of pH*

Experiment

Small samples of cold drinks of different brands were taken in a test tube and put on the pH paper. The change in colour of pH paper was noticed and was compared with standard pH scale.

Observation

Sr. No. Name Of The Drink Colour Change pH Value
1 Coca Cola Pinkish 2 – 3
2 Sprite Dark Orange 3
3 Limca Light Orange 4
5 Fanta Orange 3 – 4

Inference

Soft Drinks are generally acidic because of the presence of citric acid and phosphoric acid. pH values of  cold  drinks  of  different brand  are  different  due  to  the  variation  in  amount  of  acidic content.

*Test For Carbon Dioxide*

Experiment

As soon as the bottles were opened, one by one the samples were passed through lime water. The lime water turned milky.

Observation

Sr. No. Name Of The Drink Time Taken

(sec)

Conclusion
1 Coca Cola 28 CO2 IS PRESENT
2 Sprite 20 CO2 IS PRESENT
3 Limca 38 CO2 IS PRESENT
4 Fanta 36 CO2 IS PRESENT

Inference

All the soft drinks contain dissolved carbon dioxide in water. The carbon

dioxide  (CO2)  dissolves  in  water  to  form  carbonic  acid,  which  is responsible for its tangy taste.

Chemical Reaction

Ca(OH)2 (s) + CO2 (g) → CaCO3 (s) + H2O(l)

*Test For Glucose*

Experiment

Glucose is a reducing sugar acid. Its presence is detected by the following test:-

1.Benedict’s Reagent Test

Small samples of cold drinks of different brands were taken in a test tube and a few  drops  of  Benedict’s  reagent  were  added. The test tube was heated for few seconds. Formation of reddish color confirmed the presence of glucose in cold drinks.

Observation

Sr. No. Name Of The Drink Observation Conclusion
1 Coca Cola Reddish Colour Precipitate Glucose is Present
2 Sprite Reddish Colour Precipitate Glucose is Present
3 Limca Reddish Colour Precipitate Glucose is Present
4 Fanta Reddish Colour Precipitate Glucose is Present

Inference

All the samples gave positive test for glucose with Benedict’s reagent. Hence all the drinks contain glucose.

2. Fehling’s Solution Test

Small samples of cold drinks of different brands were taken in a test tube and a few drops of Fehling’s A solution and Fehling’s B solution was added in equal amount. The test tube was heated in water bath for 10 minutes. Appearance of brown precipitate confirmed the presence of glucose in cold drinks.

Observation

Sr. No. Name Of The Drink Observation Conclusion
1 Coca Cola Reddish Brown Precipitate Glucose is Present
2 Sprite Reddish Brown Precipitate Glucose is Present
3 Limca Reddish Brown Precipitate Glucose is Present
4 Fanta Reddish Brown Precipitate Glucose is Present

Inference

All samples gave positive test for glucose with Fehling’s (A & B) solutions. Hence all the cold drinks contain glucose.

*Test For Phosphate*

Experiment

Small  samples  of  each  brand  of cold  drinks  were  taken  in separate  test  tubes  and  Ammonium  Molybdate  followed  by concentrated Nitric Acid (HNO3) was added  to  it. The  solution was heated. Appearance of canary-yellow precipitate confirmed the presence of phosphate ions in cold drinks.

Observation

Sr. No. Name Of The Drink Observation Conclusion
1 Coca Cola Canary Yellow Precipitate Phosphate is Present
2 Sprite Canary Yellow Precipitate Phosphate is Present
3 Limca Canary Yellow Precipitate Phosphate is Present
4 Fanta Canary Yellow Precipitate Phosphate is Present

Inference

All the soft drinks samples gave positive test for phosphate ions. Hence all the cold drinks contain phosphate.

*Test For Alcohol*

Experiment

Small  samples  of  each  brand  of  cold  drinks  were  taken  in separate test tubes  and  Iodine  followed by  Potassium  Iodide and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) solution was added to each test tube. Then the test tubes were  heated in hot water bath for 30 minutes. Appearance of yellow coloured  precipitate  confirmed the presence of alcohol in cold drinks.

Observation

Sr. No. Name Of The Drink Observation Conclusion
1 Coca Cola Yellow Precipitate Alcohol is Present
2 Sprite Yellow Precipitate Alcohol is Present
3 Limca Yellow Precipitate Alcohol is Present
4 Fanta Yellow Precipitate Alcohol is Present

Inference

All the cold drinks samples gave positive test for alcohol. Hence all the cold drinks contain alcohol.

Chemical Reaction

CH3CH2OH + 4I2 + 6NaOH → CHI3 + HCOONa + 5NaI + 5H2O

*Test for Sucrose*

Experiment

5 ml samples of each brand of cold drinks  were  taken  in separate china dishes and were heated very strongly until changes occur. Black coloured residue left confirmed the presence of sucrose in cold drinks.

Observation

Sr. No. Name Of The Drink Observation Conclusion
1 Coca Cola Black Residue Sucrose is Present
2 Sprite Black Residue Sucrose is Present
3 Limca Black Residue Sucrose is Present
4 Fanta Black Residue Sucrose is Present

Inference

All the brands of cold drinks contain sucrose. But amount of sucrose varies in each brand of drink. Fanta contains highest amount of sucrose.

*Result*

After conducting several tests, it was concluded that the different brands of cold drinks namely:

1. Coca Cola

2. Sprite

3. Limca

4. Fanta

All contains glucose, alcohol, sucrose, phosphate and carbon dioxide. All cold drinks are acidic in nature. On comparing the pH value of different brands Coca Cola is the most acidic and Limca is least acidic of all the four brands taken.

Among the four samples of cold drinks taken, Sprite has the maximum amount of dissolved carbon dioxide and Fanta has the minimum amount of dissolved carbon dioxide.

*Precautions*

Some of the precautions which need to be taken care of are –

  1. Concentrated solutions should be handled with immense care.

2.  Hands should be washed thoroughly after performing each experiment.

3.  If possible, one should wear hand gloves to prevent from any possible damage.

4.  If chemicals come into contact with your skin or eyes, flush immediately with copious amounts of water.

5.  Never leave burners unattended. Turn them off whenever you leave your workstation.

6. Never point a test tube or any vessel that you are heating at yourself or your neighbour.

*Conclusion*

DIS-ADVANTAGES OF COLD DRINKS

1. Soft drinks are little more harmful than sugar solution. As

they contain sugar in large amount which cause problems in

diabetes patients.

2. Soft drinks can cause weight gain as they interfere with the

body’s natural ability to suppress hunger feeling.

3. Soft drinks have ability to dissolve the calcium so they are

also harmful for our bones.

4. Soft drinks contain “phosphoric acid” which has a pH of 2.8.

So they can dissolve a nail in about 4 days.

5. For transportation of soft drinks syrup the commercial truck

must use the hazardous matter place cards reserved for

highly consive material.

6. Soft drinks have also ability to remove blood so they are very

harmful to our body.

USES OF COLD DRINKS

1. Cold drinks can be used as toilet cleaners.

2. They can remove rust spots from chrome car humpers.

3. They clean corrosion from car battery terminals.

4. Soft drinks are used as an excellent ‘detergent’ to remove

grease from clothes.

5. They can loose a rusted bolt.

*Bibliography*

Following books and websites were a source for my project .

Comprehensive Chemistry Lab Manual

- Dr. N. K.  Verma

www. Google.com

www.Wikipedia.com

www. Icbse.com

www. Unoregon.edu

  1. LOVELY
    October 6th, 2010 at 12:28 | #1

    thank u thank uthank u so much for this. it just saved my life.

  2. October 11th, 2010 at 13:14 | #2

    your project is very good

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