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Chemistry Project to Study the Adulterants in Food

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Adulterants in Food

Name: Taher Shabbir Hussain Class: XII-B

School: Indian Public School Year: 2009-2010

Certified to be the bonafide work done by

Mr. / Miss   TAHER SHABBIR HUSSAIN of class______________ XII – B____________

in the________ CHEMISTRY LAB_____________ during the year     2009-2010

Date____________________________________ P.G.T. in        CHEMISTRY

INDIAN PUBLIC SCHOOL Salmiya-Kuwait

Submitted for ALL INDIA SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE PRACTICAL

Examination held in      CHEMISTRY LAB___________________ at INDIAN PUBLIC SCHOOL

Salmiya , Kuwait.

Examiner

Date__________________

Seal

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my chemistry mentor M.rs._Shjrjejy Zachanah, for her vital support, guidance and encouragement -without which this project would not have come forth. I would also like to express my gratitude to the lab assistant Mrs..Julje_Sa.m for her support during the making of this project.

S.No. Contents II Page No.
I. Objective 6
II. Introduction 8
III. Theory
IV. Experiment 1 10
V. Experiment 2 11
VI. Experiment 3 12
VII. Result 13
VIII. Conclusion 14
IX. Bibliography 15

The Objective of this project is to study some of the c.ommon…food..a.dult.erants present in different food stuffs.

Adulteration in food is normally present in its most crude form; prohibited substances are either added or partly or wholly substituted. Normally the contamination/adulteration in food is done either for financial gain or due to carelessness and lack in proper hygienic condition of processing, storing, transportation and marketing. This ultimately results that the consumer is either cheated or often become victim of diseases. Such types of adulteration are quite common in developing countries or backward countries. It is equally important for the consumer to know the common adulterants and their effect on health.

TfflDRy

The increasing number of food producers and the outstanding amount of import foodstuffs enables the producers to mislead and cheat consumers. To differentiate those who take advantage of legal rules from the ones who commit food adulteration is very difficult. The consciousness of consumers would be crucial. Ignorance and unfair market behavior may endanger consumer health and misleading can lead to poisoning. So we need simple screening, tests for their detection.

In the past few decades, adulteration of food has become one of the serious problems. Consumption of adulterated food causes serious diseases like cancer, .diarrhoea., , .asthma., .ulcers., etc. Majority of fats, oils and butter are paraffin wax, castor oil and hydrocarbons. Red chilli powder is mixed with brick powder and pepper is mixed with dried papaya seeds. These adulterants can be easily identified by simple chemical tests.

Several agencies .have been set up by the Government of India to remove adulterants from food stuffs.

AGMARK – acronym for agricultural marketing….this organization certifies food products for their quality. Its objective is to promote the Grading and Standardization of agricultural and allied commodities.

To detect the presence of adulterants in fat, oil and butter. REQUIREMENTS

Test-tube, acetic anhydride, conc. H2SO4, acetic acid, conc. HNO3. PROCEDURE

Common adulterants present in ghee and oil are paraffin wax, hydrocarbons, dyes and argemone oil. These are detected as follows :

(i)           Adulteration of paraffin wax and hydrocarbon in vegetable ghee
Heat small amount of vegetable ghee with acetic anhydride. Droplets
of oil floating on the surface of unused acetic anhydride indicates the
presence of wax or hydrocarbons.

(ii)          Adulteration of dyes in fat

Heat 1mL of fat with a mixture of 1mL of conc. sulphuric acid and 4mL of acetic acid. Appearance of pink or red colour indicates presence of dye in fat.

(iii)        Adulteration of argemone oil in edible oils

To small amount of oil in a test-tube, add few drops of conc. HNO3 and shake. Appearance of red colour in the acid layer indicates presence of argemone oil.

To detect the presence of adulterants in sugar REQUIREMENTS

Test-tubes, dil. HCl.

PROCEDURE

Sugar is usually contaminated with washing soda and other insoluble substances which are detected as follows :

(i)           Adulteration of various insoluble substances in sugar

Take small amount of sugar in a test-tube and shake it with little water. Pure sugar dissolves in water but insoluble impurities do not dissolve.

(ii)         Adulteration of chalk powder, washing soda in sugar

To small amount of sugar in a test-tube, add few drops of dil. HCl. Brisk effervescence of CO2 shows the presence of chalk powder or washing soda in the given sample of sugar.
To detect the presence of adulterants in samples of chilli powder, turmeric powder and pepper

REQUIREMENTS

Test-tubes, conc. HCl, dil. HNO3, KI solution PROCEDURE

Common adulterants present in chilli powder, turmeric powder and pepper are red coloured lead salts, yellow lead salts and dried papaya seeds respectively. They are detected as follows :

(i)           Adulteration of red lead salts in chilli powder

To a sample of chilli powder, add dil. HNO3. Filter the solution and add 2 drops of potassium iodide solution to the filtrate. Yellow ppt. indicates the presence of lead salts in chilli powder.

(ii)         Adulteration of yellow lead salts to turmeric powder

To a sample of turmeric powder add conc. HCl. Appearance of magenta colour shows the presence of yellow oxides of lead in turmeric powder.

(iii)        Adulteration of brick powder in red chilli powder

Add small amount of given red chilli powder in beaker containing water. Brick powder settles at the bottom while pure chilli powder floats over water.

(iv)        Adulteration of dried papaya seeds in pepper

Add small amount of sample of pepper to a beaker containing water and stir with a glass rod. Dried papaya seeds being lighter float over water while pure pepper settles at the bottom.

EXPERIMENT II PROCEDURE OBSERVATION
Adulteration of Heat small amount of Appearance of oil
paraffin wax and vegetable ghee with acetic floating on the
hydrocarbon in anhydride. Droplets of oil surface.
vegetable ghee floating on the surface of
unused acetic anhydride
indicate the presence of wax
or hydrocarbon.
Adulteration of dyes Heat 1mL of fat with a Appearance of pink
in fat mixture of 1mL of conc. colour.
H2SO4 and 4mL of acetic acid.
Adulteration of To small amount of oil in a No red colour
argemone oil in edible test tube, add few drops of observed
oils conc. HNO3 & shake.
Adulteration of Take small amount of sugar Pure sugar
various insoluble in a test tube and shake it dissolves in water
substances in sugar with little water. but insoluble
impurities do not
dissolve.
Adulteration of chalk To small amount of sugar in a No brisk
powder, washing soda test tube, add a few drops of effervescence
in sugar dil. HCl. observed.
Adeulteration of To sample of turmeric Appearance of
yellow lead salts to powder, add conc. HCl. magenta colour
turmeric powder
Adulteration of red To a sample of chilli powder, No yellow ppt.
lead salts in chilli add dil. HNO3. Filter the
powder solution and add 2 drops of
KI solution to the filtrate.
Adulteration of brick Add small amount of given Brick powder settles
powder in chilli red chilli powder in a beaker at the bottom while
powder containing water. pure chilli powder
floats over water.
Adulteration of dried Add small amount of sample Dried papaya seeds
papaya seeds in of pepper to beaker being lighter float
pepper containing water and stir over water while
with a glass rod. pure pepper settles
at the bottom.

Selection of wholesome and non-adulterated food is essential for daily life to make sure that such foods do not cause any health hazard. It is not possible to ensure wholesome food only on visual examination when the toxic contaminants are present in ppm level. However, visual examination of the food before purchase makes sure to ensure absence of insects, visual fungus, foreign matters, etc. Therefore, due care taken by the consumer at the time of purchase of food after thoroughly examining can be of great help. Secondly, label declaration on packed food is very important for knowing the ingredients and nutritional value. It also helps in checking the freshness of the food and the period of best before use. The consumer should avoid taking food from an unhygienic place and food being prepared under unhygienic conditions. Such types of food may cause various diseases. Consumption of cut fruits being sold in unhygienic conditions should be avoided. It is always better to buy certified food from reputed shop.

a ENCARTA ENCYCLOPEDIA 2009

a www.wikipedia.com

a www.answers.com

a www.icbse.com

a www.google.com

  1. rajul ratnawat
    August 5th, 2010 at 07:27 | #1

    i read this project as i am in need of such project , this is very good….

  2. September 6th, 2010 at 16:49 | #2

    This experiment is kind of messed up. Recheck it..

  3. kishore
    October 4th, 2010 at 16:12 | #3

    thx a lot frnd!!! this project literally saved my life!!

  4. Jaina
    October 5th, 2010 at 17:39 | #4

    This is a good attempt,I appreciate it!! :) :)

  5. deepika singh
    October 6th, 2010 at 12:31 | #5

    HEY ITS GREAT…..

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