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Chemistry Project on Foaming Capacity of Soaps

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Foaming Capacity of Soaps

This is to certify that Mr. Pratyush Mishra of Class XI ‘B’ has satisfactorily completed the project on “Foaming Capacity of Soap under the guidance of Sir Francis Xavier during the session 2009-2010.

Place: D-22 RDVV UNIVERSITY JABALPUR

Date:

(Sir Francis Xavier)

School Stamp

I’d like to express my greatest gratitude to the people who have helped & supported me throughout my project. I’ m grateful to Sir Francis Xavier for his continuous support for the project, from initial advice & encouragement to this day.

Special thanks of mine goes to my colleague who helped me in completing the project by giving interesting ideas, thoughts & made this project easy and accurate.

I wish to thanks my parents for their undivided support & interest who inspired me & encouraged me to go my own way, without which I would be unable to complete my project. At last but not the least I want to thanks my friends who appreciated me for my work & motivated me and finally to God who made all the things possible…

S. no. Contents Page No.
1 INTRODUCTION 1
2 EXPERIMENT 1 2
3 EXPERIMENT 2 4
4 BIBLIOGRAPHY 6

Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of higher fatty acids like stearic, palmitic and oleic acids can be either saturated or unsaturated. They contain a long hydrocarbon chain of about 10-20 carbon with one carboxylic acid group as the functional group.

A soap molecule a tadpole shaped structure, whose ends have different polarities. At one end is the long hydrocarbon chain that is non-polar and hydrophobic, i.e., insoluble in water but oil soluble. At the other end is the short polar carboxylate ion which is hydrophilic i.e., water soluble but insoluble in oil and grease.

Long Hydrocarbon Chain Hydrophobic end    Hydrophilic end

When soap is shaken with water it becomes a soap solution that is colloidal in nature. Agitating it tends to concentrate the solution on the surface and causes foaming. This helps the soap molecules make a unimolecular film on the surface of water and to penetrate the fabric. The long non-polar end of a soap molecule that are hydrophobic, gravitate towards and surround the dirt (fat or oil with dust absorbed in it). The short polar end containing the carboxylate ion, face the water away from the dirt. A number of soap molecules surround or encircle dirt and grease in a clustered structure called ‘micelles’, which encircles such particles and emulsify them.

Cleansing action of soaps decreases in hard water. Hard water contains Calcium and magnesium ions which react with sodium carbonate to produce insoluble carbonates of higher fatty acids.

2C17H35COONa +Ca2+ (C17H35COO) 2 Ca   +2Na+

(Water soluble)                            (ppt.)

2C17H35COONa + Mg2+ (C17H35COO) 2 Mg   +2Na+

This hardness can be removed by addition of Sodium Carbonate.

Ca2++ Na2CO3 CaCO3 + 2Na+

Mg2++ Na2CO3 MgCO3 + 2Na+

Aim: To compare the foaming capacities of five different commercial soaps.
Apparatus: 5 test tubes, 5 conical flasks (100 ml), test tube stand, Bunsen burner and stop watch.
Materials Required: 5 different samples of soap and distilled water
Theory:

The foaming capacity of a soap sample depends upon the nature of soap and its concentration. This can be compared for various samples of soaps by taking the same concentration of solution and shaking them.

The foam is formed and the time taken for disappearances of foam in all cases is compared. The lesser the time taken by a solution for the disappearance of foam, the lower is its foaming capacity.

Procedure:
  • Five conical flasks (100 ml each) are taken and numbered 1 to 5.
  • In each of these flasks equal amounts (say 5 gm) of the given samples of soap shavings or granules are taken and 50 ml of distilled water is added.
  • Each conical flask is heated few minutes to dissolve all the soap completely.
  • In a test-tube stand, five big clean and dry test tubes are taken and numbered 1 to 5
  • One ml of the five soap solution is then poured in the test tubes of corresponding number.
  • 10 ml. of distilled water is then added to each test tube.
  • Test tube no 1 is then shaken vigorously 5 times.
  • The foam would be formed in the empty space above the container.      Stop watch is started immediately and the time taken for the disappearance of foam is noted.
  • Similarly the other test tubes are shaken vigorously for equal number of times (i.e., 5 times) with approximately with the same force and the time taken for the disappearance of foam in each case is recorded.
  • The lesser the time taken for the disappearance of foam, the lower is the foaming capacity.
Observation:

Amount of each soap sample taken

Amount of distilled water taken

Volume of each soap solution taken

Volume of distilled water added

= 5 gm.

= 50 ml.

= 1 ml.

= 10 ml.

S. No. Soap Sample Time taken (seconds)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Conclusions: The soap for which the time taken for the disappearance of foam is highest has maximum foaming capacity and is the best quality soap among the soaps tested.
Aim: Study the effect of the addition of Sodium Carbonate (Washing Soda) on the foaming capacity of different soap solutions.
Apparatus: 3 test tubes, test tube stand, Bunsen burner and stop watch.
Materials Required: 0.5 g sample of soap, water (distilled & tap both) and M/10 Na2CO3 solution.
Theory: When sodium or potassium soaps are put into water containing calcium and magnesium ions (Hard water), results in formation of scum which applies grey appearance on the cloth. To achieve the same washing or cleaning action, more soap must be added.

2C17H35COONa +Ca2+ (C17H35COO) 2 Ca   +2Na+

(Water soluble)                         (scum)

Hard water is water that has high mineral content (mainly calcium and magnesium ions) (in contrast with soft water). Hard water minerals primarily consist of calcium (Ca2+), and magnesium (Mg2+) metal cations, and sometimes other dissolved compounds such as bicarbonates and sulphates. Calcium usually enters the water as either calcium carbonate (CaCO3), in the form of limestone and chalk, or calcium sulphate (CaSO4), in the form of other mineral deposits.

When Na2CO3 is added to tap water the calcium (Ca2+), and magnesium (Mg2+) ions precipitate as their carbonates .i.e. foaming capacity of soap increases.

Ca2++ Na2CO3 CaCO3 + 2Na+

Mg2++ Na2CO3 MgCO3 + 2Na+

Procedure:
  • Dissolve 0.5g of soap and dissolve it in 50 ml of distilled water.
  • Take three test tubes and add distilled water in first, tap water in second and third test tube.
  • Add 5 ml of M/10 sodium carbonate to third test tube.
  • To above test tubes add soap solutions separately.
  • Now shake first test tubes for formation of foam.
  • Now start the stop watch to calculate time taken for disappearance of foam.
  • Similarly, perform the experiment with other soap solutions. Record the observations in a tabular form.
Observation:

Amount of each soap sample taken

Amount of distilled water taken

Volume of each soap solution taken

Volume of distilled water added

= 0. 5 gm.

= 50 ml.

= 1 ml.

= 10 ml.

S. No. Water used Time taken (seconds)
1.
2.
3.
Conclusions: Foaming capacity of soap in maximum in distilled water.        The foaming capacity of soap increases on the addition of Sodium Carbonate.
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